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Source link: http://archive.mises.org/4190/how-the-communists-rule-germany/

How the Communists Rule Germany

October 11, 2005 by

A decade and a half after the Berlin Wall fell, writes Thomas Rudolf, and all these years after tthe socialist idea was discredited all over Europe, it is the communists and their supporters who are preventing reform in Germany, and the socialists and various stripes whose policies are keeping the economy off the growth path. It makes one wonder who precisely won the Cold War. Communists had less influence over West Germany twenty years ago than they do today. FULL ARTICLE


Stefan Karlsson October 11, 2005 at 8:03 am

What I think is interesting is how badly East Germany have turned out compared to the other ex-communist Eastern European countries. While East Germany was far poorer than West Germany it was still the richest country in the communist bloc. And after the fall of communism many people considered East Germany lucky since they would receive hugh subsidies from West Germany while the other Eastern European countries had to make it on their own. As it turned out however, being incorporated into the Western German welfare state have only created stagnation and mass unemployment while the other ex-communist countries have been able to pursue more market-oriented policies and have as a result seen high growth-highest in Estonia whose market reforms have been the most radical.

Young Hoon Song October 11, 2005 at 8:12 am

It is just temporary phenomena.
Old East German Communist can still perform thier role and it is allowed indemocratic system.
They still don’t have time to learn the way of Capitalism.And people still have the freedom to choose.Above all, the election couldn’t be meant more than communist won the election .It does not mean failure of Open Society.

Ooko - Otieno, P October 11, 2005 at 8:44 am

That a significant segment of East Germans have voted for the communists suggests that voting can only be on the basis of what you are familiar with. Communism provided the safety net or atleast justified the safety net that has so far provided relief from the austerity measures that come with so many capitalistic reform packages.

Long term solution for eliminating socialist influence lies in public education and humane implementation of reform programmes!!

Dr.Sz.Piskolti October 11, 2005 at 8:47 am

I disagree with the analysis in the articlewhich furthermore also has glaring factual mistakes.Examples include a.o.the following:

The statement, in the chapter on Election results, that “Germany’s conservatives won a narrow victory against the coalition of the Social Democrats and the Green Party” is entirly humbug.The combined percentage share of the vote of the latter two parties combined was over 42 percent as opposed to the combined CDU/CSU share of 35.2 percent.

Similarly, in the Chapter on current situation misleadingly states that “Schroeder’s party is no longer the strongest party in the parliament”.This again is complete nonsense.The SPD has ,as mentioned above 34.3percent,CDU around 27,the CSU around 7 percent respectively.Only the conservative faction is larger than the SPD.
A tendentious paper.

Stefan Karlsson October 11, 2005 at 9:08 am

Otiento, what are you talking about? East Germans now enjoy one of the more extensive “safety nets” in the world. That is in fact the problem since it has prevented the kind of economic boom that for example Estonia have seen.

Larry Nieves October 11, 2005 at 10:32 am

Dr. Piskolti,

CDU/CSU are for all practical considerations one party, so they form the strongest fraction in the Bundestag. But you’re right with respect to your first statement, the coalition CDU/CSU + FDP won a narrow victory over SPD+Greens and not CDU/CSU alone

R. H. Bailin October 11, 2005 at 10:40 am

Your article on the current political situation in Germany was enlightening.

Is it not correct that the Nazis came into power in a similar situation in terms of a disjointed multiparty electorate. My vague memory is that Hitler’s party had less than 5% but he was able to form a coalition with nationalists, monarchists, militarists, etc by promising each what they most wanted.

Long have I believed, that in some profound way Americans, are qualitatively different than their cousins in the rest of the world, Europe, S. America, etc. There are people who will literally walk thru the gates of hell as long as they are accompanied by their friends and neibors. In Germany this is manifest by a pathological respect for authority and the divintiy of ‘leadership’.

Some 17 years ago, in a surburb of Stutgard my German-American wife and I were across the street from the commuter train station. We could hear the train approaching and see that there were no cars anywhere to be seen, so we crossed against the light. Behind us stood 6 or 8 locals hissing, clucking and cursing us for flaunting the authority of the law. Later when we asked, our hosts said it was because ‘it was a bad example for the childred’ none of course were there at the time. They are a very stubborn people when it comes to the primacy of what they see as their righteousness. This does not bode well for them in crises which require flexibility.

This seems to be at least somewhat less true of people whose recent ancestors left home and hearth (and neibors) to make a better life for themselves.

deva October 11, 2005 at 10:47 am

90% of the wealth in a society ends up in the top 10% of the population. So if we swindled the poor workers off their six weeks paid vacation by saying they will make more money for the country and themselves and contribute to world economy and therfore indirectly us also, what we are really saying is “You poor middle and low class worker, we the wealthiest of the world have a proposition for you, work 240 hours(6wks or 30days at 8hrs/day). In the end we the Jetsetting, Yatcing, Island hopping, Golfing, partying wealthy will keep our share – 216 hours for us (90%) and you will get to keep 24 EXTRA HOURS OF PAY!” Isn’t this economy grand, shouldn’t everybody contribute more? The wealthy need more wealth don’t they? There is always a better luxury yatch that can be built and bought can’t it?

EG October 11, 2005 at 11:23 am

It is not true that ‘nobody’ in Western Germany voted for the Left party. In some counties the Left got more than five percent eg. Hessen 5.3%, Rheinland Pfalz 5.6 %, Nordrhein-Westfalen 5.2% etc.
If the CDU/CSU would have done a better job during their election campaign the outcome would have been different – for example beeing consistent in their election pledges (what they were not). Furthermore, if Mr. Stoiber recommends in a speech: don’t let the frustrated in Eastern Germany decide who will win the election (and according to him- unfortunately not all German voters are as smart as the Bavarian voters) – What will the ‘frustrated’ do?
However, my point is that the ‘misguided’ socialist mentality of east Germans is not the only explanation for these election results.

melitta October 11, 2005 at 11:25 am

Dear Mr. R.H. Bailin,

I read your comment about the law abiding Germans with a chuckle.

It is true that Germans value law and order in things small AND large. Many Americans are loath
to obey things large, as the crime statistics
collected by various agencies have proved year
after year and where America holds sad records.
They of course do not like to obey the small laws

American authority however is on its way to enforce the law in small things, if not in large ones and teach the public a lesson.

Some time ago I went to work early. It was about
6 30 AM and the streets were empty, but the traffic lights were busy. I dared, with no traffic
in sight, to cross the street against a light. Would you not know it! A city policeman had spied me and approached me. He was very agitated
about my lawlessness, produced a big book and with
dirty fingernails showed me a section where it said that one must, as a pedestrian, obey signals.
He was very proud of having found and being able
to read me that important item of civic discipline.

You may consider this event and then think again about your attempt to repeat and generate tired cliches about one of the most orderly and pleasant countries on earth, Germany. There people obey small and large laws and do not
deserve to be ridiculed for it.


James Martin October 11, 2005 at 12:05 pm

As a original inhabitant of the “object of study” please allow some minor corrections:
- There is no 35h working week in the industry, the average is 38 hours, and there are a lot of exceptions if the company needs.

Regardless of this, had you ever “seen” a factory floor under full production with all the lights shut off, totaly dark? Maybe you will find a different approach to the term productivity hours .

- There is no “guaranteed by law” 6 weeks paid vacation, guaranteed by law (“Gesetzlicher Mindesturlaub”) is 24 working days which results by 6 working days to 4 weeks paid vacation.

Vacancies beyond differs, 6 weeks is standard in industry, but the result of negotiations between working and management unions.

- PDS is a socialist, not a communist party.

The Kommunistische Partei Deutschland (KPD) is illegal by law in germany since 1956.

The unemployment rate is not only grown with the welfare state. Even with the grade of automation, of productivity, of GDP, and the lost of “simpler” work.

- Results of the last elections in more
concentrated form (percent)
left (SPD, PDS) 42,xx
right (Union, FDP) 45,xx

left (SPD, PDS) 43,xx
right (Union, FDP) 45,xx

So every thing must change in order to be the same ;-)

Brian Gladish October 11, 2005 at 3:09 pm


Perhaps the workers will get 100% time off as the Chinese supply the jets for jetsetting, the yachts for yachting, the islands for island hopping, the golf equipment for the golfing and the catering for the parties, all at a fraction of the cost in Germany. This is market reality you are dealing with, and it doesn’t really matter whether you like it or not. Maybe you can see that if you get over the “injustice” of it all.

Paul Marks October 11, 2005 at 3:18 pm

The Left party won 9% of the vote and will not be in government.

Most Germans are not free market people (but neither are most Americans – see the opinions of the majority on Medicare, Medicaid, and everything else), but they are not socialists either.

Germany has great defects and is far from a free market (but so are Britian and the United States – indeed real government spending in Britian, much of which is kept “off the books” by Mr Brown’s Enron style tricks, may actually be a greater share of the economy than it is in Germany), but it is not a socialist country, the state does not control all (or even nearly all) of the economy.

Germany is not like Cuba or North Korea.

Marco October 11, 2005 at 3:38 pm

R. H. Bailin wrote:

My vague memory is that Hitler’s party had less than 5% but he was able to form a coalition with nationalists, monarchists, militarists, etc by promising each what they most wanted.

Hitler’s party was already the largest political party by votes long before he came to power, but he lacked enough votes or allies to form a government. The first Hitler government, from 31 January 1933, was a presidentially appointed cabinet in which the nazis held a minority of the ministerial posts. In the elections of 5 March 1933, the nazis obtained around 43% of the vote, still not enough to form a government but enough to push together a coalition with the nationalisty DNVP, which had around 8%. The final nail in the coffin came on 23 March, when the nazis managed to get the 2/3 parliamentary majority they needed to pass the so-called Enabling Act, which basically gave the government full legislative powers for four years. The SPD was the only party which voted against. By early summer the nazis were the only party left in Germany, all others (including their nationalist allies) having been forcibly disbanded or dissolved of their own free will.

DJC October 11, 2005 at 4:38 pm

Is there not a serious case to be made for secession? The idea of a unified German state is not that old and its history has been problematic (to say the least).

Why not let the Laender just become autonomous states? Many are larger than other EU states in both population and economy.

While they would still (regretably) be subject to the rules of the EU, at least these Laender could pursue some of their own policies.

James Roberts October 11, 2005 at 4:50 pm

When I saw this article, with the title “How the Communists Rule Germany,” I knew that it was time to go. Time to reevaluate my reading habits. The communists do not rule Germany! There is just too much nonsense here.

jeffrey October 11, 2005 at 4:54 pm

James Roberts, you might actually read the article, because you would discover that the author means the Communists hold a kind of balance of power that prevents the formation of a coalition for genuine reform. It is clever analysis of the paradox of democracy. But why am I summarizing what you haven’t bother to read?

David White October 11, 2005 at 5:53 pm


“Is there not a serious case to be made for secession?”

Indeed there is — whether in Germany, China, or the United States — the point being that it isn’t allowed because the state denies its subjects (who are ipso facto not citizens) the one right upon which government by consent of the government depends: If you are not allowed to vote your government out — not just the party in power but the government itself — democracy is reduced to the farce that it has been since Lincoln “preserve[d] the Union” at the expense of the principle upon which it was founded.

Kuhllax24 October 11, 2005 at 6:26 pm

In 1999, I had lived in Mainz for a year, and I finally got back to Germany 3 weeks ago, in which I visited friends in Hamburg.

Everything I say herein is anecdotal:

1) I noticed a lot more homeless (Obdachlos) than five years prior. Most were drunk, and many were aggressively panhandling. I recall when I was in Mainz and there were hardly any homeless in comparison to NYC. The Germans prided themselves on saying that their social capitalism (Soziale Marktwirtschaft) ensured that no one would be on the streets without food or roof. Now, I would say that there are more homeless per capita in Hamburg than in NYC.

2) Most of my friends, who were in their early 20s, are still at the university. Since the job market is so bad for new entrants, many push off seeking a job and keep continuing their education, since it’s free, and since many of life’s necessities (food, apartment, transportation, health care) are heavily subsidized by the state. Those who do decide to seek a job generally have to take an internship (Praktikum), in which their paid a monthly pittance. Since workers are so expensive in Germany, companies can only justify hiring new workers by paying them as interns with little or no pay. Many of my friends (in their late 20s or early 30s) still live at home with their parents, since they cannot afford rent or food. How tragic is it, when society’s most industrious age group (20s to early 30s) is confined to either doing internships, or to continuing with an education that they don’t really want or need, and thus contributing nothing to the economy, but rather leeching off of it?

3) People have become total misers. It was very difficult to convince my friends to go out for one meal, whereas I and most people I know like to go out to dinner once a week. Due to the 17% V.A.T., food at restaurants, clothing, and other merchandise is very expensive. Coupled with the fact that the economic outlook is grim, and most young people have little to no income, the retail scene in Germany is harsh.

4) Entrepreneurial spirit is almost non-existent. Since the cost of starting a business, due to mounds of red tape, huge hiring costs, and other reasons (I want to say due to lack of capital, but I cannot back this up), most people are quite satisfied to work with a stable company for most of their life, as long as they get good medical, 6 weeks of vacation, a little bonus around Christmas (Weihnachtsgeld), and stability. Whereas there’s a discernible desire by many Americans to start their own business, to free themselves from the vestiges of their employers, I find little of in Germany. Lack of entrepreneurism translates into lack of new companies, which translates into a dearth of new jobs.

So, are there any positives? Germans are very bright and inquisitive folk, who are quite industrious (fleissig), believe it or not. Most Germans (western) realize change to their beloved soziale Marktwirtschaft is necessary and are willing to move forward. What I find to be holding them back are the unions, which still have a stranglehold on business (if there’s a union at a firm, then its members must be alloted seats on the company’s board), along with Eastern Germans, who have been pampered since Kohl came up with ingenious idea of paring the East German mark 1:1 with the West German mark as well as giving all the Eastern Germans the same benefits as West Germans (Wessis), although they contributed nothing to the system. Didn’t the countries that received the last amount of aid under the Marshall Plan (e.g., Belgium, Netherlands, Germany), have the fastest growing economies for 30 years after WWII, whereas those that were doled the most money (e.g., Britain and France), languished economically for quite awhile. Hmmm, I wonder if there’s a connection with the Marshall Plan and the generosity of the West Germans after the reunification?

Believe it or not, I’ve been offered a job there and am currently considering moving there. I like the country a lot and believe that eventually it will turn itself around.

Again, what I say is my own opinion based on my own observations, and there is no evidence that what I noticed or discussed with Germans holds true.



William October 11, 2005 at 8:44 pm

All is not lost, it is just not yet bad enough. Twelve percent unemployment is not all that horrible. When it is 16 to 20 percent then you will see some changes.

Also, do not forget all that great stuff coming from China, India and the like. The US is going crazy buying all this cheap stuff and becoming wealthier in the process. At some time Germans will insist on getting some of that stuff as well. This will signal the end.

PS: If the US wants Germany to slow down or even end its welfare state the best way to force it will be for the US to do so first. The volume of lost wealth will force these Euro-welfare states to become more free-exchange oriented.

James Roberts October 11, 2005 at 9:01 pm

Jeffrey, I’ve learned not to read articles that have titles like “Why the FDA is Destroying Our Health” or “How Bush, Cheney, and Rumsfeld Rule the World” or “How the Fascists Have Taken Over Our Public Schools.” Unless this article is a spoof, a parody, or other bit of humor, then why the need or the desire to mislead prospective readers from the get-go. Again, I don’t have the time for this nonsense. Do you? Drawing from your remarks to me, a better title would be: “Communists Prevent Coalition for Genuine Reform.” Don’t you think most readers with a real and serious interest in the matter—readers who don’t have the time for attention getting tactics—would be quicker and more eager to give the author a chance if there wasn’t such obfuscation? And it is true, I didn’t “bother to read” this article; and in the future I will not likely be enticed to read other pieces with patent falsehoods in their titles (titles with no attempt at irony to cue the reader that the author “really didn’t mean it.”) I unapologetically meant what I said, with no irony or hyperbole intended: I really don’t have the time! Do you?

Bob A. October 11, 2005 at 9:21 pm


“The US is going crazy buying all this cheap stuff and becoming wealthier in the process.”

I liked everything you said; it makes good sense, all except the above statement. What source/s could you lead me to that verify this trend? I can only find indications opposite of this statement in the materials I read. I know that the neocon propaganda claims wealth is building across all levels of income groups, but I have not found any reliable sources to verify this claim.

Jayant Bhandari October 12, 2005 at 12:08 am

I have always had more German friends than those from any other country. I have never been able to get responses to the following: They are probably the world’s most honest people. They say what they think. At the same time they do not see the truth and even fail to discuss where their country is going. They are also probably the most individualistic people. They do what they want to do. At the same time their colours change when they are in front of the authority and altruism has taken an amazing grip on the country.

Any one who can respond to my queries will earn my gratitude.


NamedForRep.Ron October 12, 2005 at 1:05 am

DJC-excellent point re: secession. One might wonder what, really, the benefit of the united German state is–hasn’t it been more or less one disaster after another? The German people spend a millennium building Western society as a decentralized nation and then revert to intellectual and moral cavemen when some gorilla gets hold of the centralized state’s power. (Generalization, but you get the idea.)

Frank Vogelgesang October 12, 2005 at 2:30 am

I must say that James Roberts has a point here. It seems that the author of the article allowed his disappointment over the election results to take the better of his clear-eyed analytical powers. When he states in the last paragraph that “communists now rule more of Germany than 20 years ago” and “it makes you wonder who won the cold war” this clearly is shooting at sparrows with cannons, as we like to say in Deutschland.

RJ October 12, 2005 at 3:33 am

well when we have so many examples of capitalism going the corrupt rout, such a division between the rich and the poor in the bastions of capitalistic society , there needs to be a balance , the truth is that ideologies need balance as do societies.

its like a pendulum, when societies rest on thier laurels and corruption and unfair divisions exist in a society due to political folly , then it is only natural that the pendulum will swing the other way .

i am not anti money but lets face it there is room in the world for more than one ideology

if you live in a corrupt society then you should expect change .

don’t blame the piper for playing the song thats already playing .

Marco October 12, 2005 at 8:12 am

Jayant: those are statements, not questions :)

Kuhllax24: the reason why the British economy languished after WWII and the German one prospered had IMHO not much to do with the Marshall plan, but rather with the fact that Germany adopted a relatively free market economy under Ludwig Erhard, while Britain went on a misguided socialist experiment.

Eva-Maria October 12, 2005 at 10:54 am


what a superficial observation you made! Just one of your facts: “along with Eastern Germans, who have been pampered since Kohl came up with ingenious idea of paring the East German mark 1:1 with the West German mark as well as giving all the Eastern Germans the same benefits as West Germans (Wessis), although they contributed nothing to the system.”

Just a little reminder that
1)the East German Mark was exchanged 2:1 to the West German Mark (only a small part of your money was allowed to be exchanged 1:1)

2)Western Germany had a lot of help with the Marshall Plan. Eastern Germany was ‘exploited’ by Russia. As an East German you didn’t have any choice to do better or not (as you should know – Easy Germans were not even allowed to leave the country – only travelling to communist countries was allowed)

3)Wages in East Germany are still lower than in West Germany in the public sector and BOTH PARTS of the country have to pay for the reunion.

4) Many industries in the Eastern part were bought by industrials from Western Germany for 1 German Mark just to get the subventions and let it go.

And by the way – your views expressed don’t get any better with mixing some german words in your explanations.


melitta October 13, 2005 at 10:03 am

In Newsweek of Oct. 10/05 there is an article by
a Fareed Zakaria with the title “The Germans:
A Lot Like Us”. This article features a fat lined
heading which says:”Last year Germany became the
world’s No.1 exporter, larger even than America,
despite the fact that the U.S. economy is five times as big.”
Any comments, particularly in view of all the
criticism habitually heaped upon Germany and Germans in Mises blogs??

Bob A. October 13, 2005 at 11:27 am


“Any comments, particularly in view of all the
criticism habitually heaped upon Germany and Germans in Mises blogs??”

I’m new to the Mises blogs so I cannot comment about habits. I have a great dislike for the actions of the German company RWE, purportedly owned by 200 German cities and 2 very large insurance companies, that is after America’s water supply systems. But I don’t care if the company is from Neptune; it’s the company’s actions that should be of great concern to all countries around the world. There’s an even larger company from France that is possibly even worse in its activities. Again, I don’t care if that company is from Pluto; the actions by the company are the danger.

“Last year Germany became the world’s No.1 exporter . . .”

For this I congratulate Germany. America will only turn itself around economically when it begins to operate as any profitable business does; it must produce and market products that generate revenue in excess of its costs. At one time in America’s history, one of its brilliantly run oligarchies thought that selling the most advanced weaponry in the world at the time was the best way to bring in outside capital.

America is a country rapidly becoming a citizenry making hamburgers and lattes and selling them to each other. More money is printed to shift around so that the economic slaves can continue spending to the satisfaction of the corporate giants built with government assistance via legislation and taxpayer abuse.

I’ll have to read this Newsweek article to find out if the exports from Germany are manufactured products, or merely services such as revenue from mishandling and misusing America’s water systems, not to mention the devious practices of using city GOVERNMENTS to come in through back doors.

Michael Hardesty October 19, 2005 at 1:16 pm

Germany sounds great from your description ! I’d
love six weeks of vacation and to be able to retire now that I’m 60. Here in the USA people
are working more just to stay in place. Our
high income jobs are disappearing and even the
tech jobs are being outsourced. Globalization
is inevitable ? Didn’t we use to hear that about
Communism ? People in Europe have seen the neoliberal free market mess over here and don’t
want it. You equate welfare statism with communism. But why don’t you attack Germany’s
jailing of writers who challenge the holocaust
orthodoxy ? That seems far more totalitarian
than a welfare check. You read like Thomas Friedman on speed. Peddle that nonsense elsewhere,
no one outside the ideologue nuts at LRC subscribes to it.

evan flux October 22, 2005 at 1:56 am

There is no such thing as pure Capitalism (re: free market economy).The economic power elites have controlled the Globalization process of western political economy for centuries.German Big bussness financed both the Bolsheviks of 1917 and the Irish revolutionaries(1916) to create diversions for it’s Arch rivals, during the crisis of the first World war. Read Lenins Imperialism the latest stage of Capitalism (1916).similarly British and American capital financed Hitler to supress Proleterian revolution in Germany during the crisis of the depression 1929 onwards.This continues today with the orchestration & funding of all waring factions by elite financial power brokers selling arms ( Re: Military industrialists).There has never been a free market economy anywhere at any time.

In the same way there has never been true christian institutions.
The Catholic church has never walked as Jesus did in humility and poverty.( re: opulent decadence and murdering crucades in the name of Empire). The murdering and subjugation of women in the persute of monopoly power again by a power elite.

Similarly there has never been a true post capitalist proleterian regime since Stalinism emerged after the death of Lenin(1924)It is also arguable just how “Communist” the Bolshevik regime of 1917 was due to the isolated and backward nature of greater Russia and it’s newly federated (Socialist in name) territories.By definition so called Capitalism is a global system and if it is to be replaced (As revolutionary proletarian leaders argue)it must be in the context of a global revolutionary process which activates peoples revolutionary democratic committees at every level of co-ordination and production in the economy,politics and especially society.

What a can of worms.The futility of such nit picking makes a life of quiet artistry(poetry,music,painting etc) so much more appealing.Unfortunately for the more quiet and creative people of the world we have no choice now but to engage in the revolutionary process because our planet is dying and we have to co-ordinate at every level democratic processes of executive responsive-ness in order to save the environment.
If the local factory is polluting the river we the people must confiscate it from the power elites and create democratically ditermined committees that can run enterprizes in co-operation with stake holders) and workers(Re:co-operatives) so that there is a deep and intimate responsiveness to the crisis at hand.

This kind of starting point is fraute with difficulties and is not pure free market or pure Socialism or for that matter Christian or Bhuddist or any pure ism.If we do not stop bikerering and just start creating the Socially responcive mechanisms to plan and co-ordinate our relationship to the simutaneous planes of existance we are all done for atleast in this physical environment we call Planet Earth.

see you in the next world. don’t be late don’t be late.

N. Joseph Potts October 22, 2005 at 7:59 pm

The portion of one’s life spent working in Germany (Europe, actually, and possibly also America) is being reduced from the FRONT (younger years) as well as from the BACK (older years). Earlier retirement, later start in productive living.

A government that is paralyzed from ALL change, whether “good” or “bad” is greatly treasured by some cynics, among whose number I rather often count myself. Consider the results of at least some “deregulations” that the political establishment has foisted off on us here in the US.

RH, Professor of Bullshit at College of Lake County June 19, 2007 at 11:36 pm

In the last decade since I have visited the hallowed streets of East Germany, I have meditated several times on the implications of the falling of the Berlin Wall. In my opinion, the fall of the wall clearly demonstrated the failure of German culture to accurately face the communist threat.

RH, Professor of Bullshit at College of Lake County June 19, 2007 at 11:36 pm

In the last decade since I have visited the hallowed streets of East Germany, I have meditated several times on the implications of the falling of the Berlin Wall. In my opinion, the fall of the wall clearly demonstrated the failure of German culture to accurately face the communist threat.

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